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This module contains basic operating system facilities like retrieving environment variables, reading command line arguments, working with directories, running shell commands, etc.

Types

ReadEnvEffect = object of ReadIOEffect
effect that denotes a read from an environment variable   Source Edit
WriteEnvEffect = object of WriteIOEffect
effect that denotes a write to an environment variable   Source Edit
ReadDirEffect = object of ReadIOEffect
effect that denotes a read operation from the directory structure   Source Edit
WriteDirEffect = object of WriteIOEffect
effect that denotes a write operation to the directory structure   Source Edit
OSErrorCode = distinct int32
Specifies an OS Error Code.   Source Edit
FilePermission = enum
  fpUserExec,                 ## execute access for the file owner
  fpUserWrite,                ## write access for the file owner
  fpUserRead,                 ## read access for the file owner
  fpGroupExec,                ## execute access for the group
  fpGroupWrite,               ## write access for the group
  fpGroupRead,                ## read access for the group
  fpOthersExec,               ## execute access for others
  fpOthersWrite,              ## write access for others
  fpOthersRead                ## read access for others
file access permission; modelled after UNIX   Source Edit
PathComponent = enum
  pcFile,                     ## path refers to a file
  pcLinkToFile,               ## path refers to a symbolic link to a file
  pcDir,                      ## path refers to a directory
  pcLinkToDir                 ## path refers to a symbolic link to a directory
Enumeration specifying a path component.   Source Edit
DeviceId = Dev
  Source Edit
FileId = Ino
  Source Edit
FileInfo = object
  id*: tuple[device: DeviceId, file: FileId]
  kind*: PathComponent
  size*: BiggestInt
  permissions*: set[FilePermission]
  linkCount*: BiggestInt
  lastAccessTime*: times.Time
  lastWriteTime*: times.Time
  creationTime*: times.Time
Contains information associated with a file object.   Source Edit

Consts

doslikeFileSystem = false
  Source Edit
CurDir = '.'

The constant string used by the operating system to refer to the current directory.

For example: '.' for POSIX or ':' for the classic Macintosh.

  Source Edit
ParDir = ".."

The constant string used by the operating system to refer to the parent directory.

For example: ".." for POSIX or "::" for the classic Macintosh.

  Source Edit
DirSep = '/'
The character used by the operating system to separate pathname components, for example, '/' for POSIX or ':' for the classic Macintosh.   Source Edit
AltSep = '/'
An alternative character used by the operating system to separate pathname components, or the same as DirSep if only one separator character exists. This is set to '/' on Windows systems where DirSep is a backslash.   Source Edit
PathSep = ':'
The character conventionally used by the operating system to separate search patch components (as in PATH), such as ':' for POSIX or ';' for Windows.   Source Edit
FileSystemCaseSensitive = true
true if the file system is case sensitive, false otherwise. Used by cmpPaths to compare filenames properly.   Source Edit
ExeExt = ""
The file extension of native executables. For example: "" for POSIX, "exe" on Windows.   Source Edit
ScriptExt = ""
The file extension of a script file. For example: "" for POSIX, "bat" on Windows.   Source Edit
DynlibFormat = "lib$1.so"
The format string to turn a filename into a DLL file (also called shared object on some operating systems).   Source Edit
ExtSep = '.'
The character which separates the base filename from the extension; for example, the '.' in os.nim.   Source Edit
ExeExts = [""]
  Source Edit

Procs

proc joinPath(head, tail: string): string {...}{.noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nos$1",
                                       raises: [], tags: [].}

Joins two directory names to one.

For example on Unix:

joinPath("usr", "lib")

results in:

"usr/lib"

If head is the empty string, tail is returned. If tail is the empty string, head is returned with a trailing path separator. If tail starts with a path separator it will be removed when concatenated to head. Other path separators not located on boundaries won't be modified. More examples on Unix:

assert joinPath("usr", "") == "usr/"
assert joinPath("", "lib") == "lib"
assert joinPath("", "/lib") == "/lib"
assert joinPath("usr/", "/lib") == "usr/lib"
  Source Edit
proc joinPath(parts: varargs[string]): string {...}{.noSideEffect, gcsafe,
    extern: "nos$1OpenArray", raises: [], tags: [].}
The same as joinPath(head, tail), but works with any number of directory parts. You need to pass at least one element or the proc will assert in debug builds and crash on release builds.   Source Edit
proc `/`(head, tail: string): string {...}{.noSideEffect, raises: [], tags: [].}

The same as joinPath(head, tail)

Here are some examples for Unix:

assert "usr" / "" == "usr/"
assert "" / "lib" == "lib"
assert "" / "/lib" == "/lib"
assert "usr/" / "/lib" == "usr/lib"
  Source Edit
proc splitPath(path: string): tuple[head, tail: string] {...}{.noSideEffect, gcsafe,
    extern: "nos$1", raises: [], tags: [].}

Splits a directory into (head, tail), so that head / tail == path (except for edge cases like "/usr").

Examples:

splitPath("usr/local/bin") -> ("usr/local", "bin")
splitPath("usr/local/bin/") -> ("usr/local/bin", "")
splitPath("bin") -> ("", "bin")
splitPath("/bin") -> ("", "bin")
splitPath("") -> ("", "")
  Source Edit
proc relativePath(path, base: string; sep = DirSep): string {...}{.noSideEffect, gcsafe,
    extern: "nos$1", raises: [], tags: [].}
Converts path to a path relative to base. The sep is used for the path normalizations, this can be useful to ensure the relative path only contains '/' so that it can be used for URL constructions.

Examples:

doAssert relativePath("/Users/me/bar/z.nim", "/Users/other/bad", '/') ==
    "../../me/bar/z.nim"
doAssert relativePath("/Users/me/bar/z.nim", "/Users/other", '/') ==
    "../me/bar/z.nim"
doAssert relativePath("/Users///me/bar//z.nim", "//Users/", '/') == "me/bar/z.nim"
doAssert relativePath("/Users/me/bar/z.nim", "/Users/me", '/') == "bar/z.nim"
doAssert relativePath("", "/users/moo", '/') == ""
  Source Edit
proc parentDir(path: string): string {...}{.noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nos$1",
                                   raises: [], tags: [].}

Returns the parent directory of path.

This is the same as splitPath(path).head when path doesn't end in a dir separator. The remainder can be obtained with lastPathPart(path)

Examples:

doAssert parentDir("") == ""
when defined(posix):
  doAssert parentDir("/usr/local/bin") == "/usr/local"
  doAssert parentDir("foo/bar/") == "foo"
  Source Edit
proc tailDir(path: string): string {...}{.noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nos$1", raises: [],
                                 tags: [].}
Returns the tail part of path..

Example: tailDir("/usr/local/bin") == "local/bin".
Example: tailDir("usr/local/bin/") == "local/bin".
Example: tailDir("bin") == "".

  Source Edit
proc isRootDir(path: string): bool {...}{.noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nos$1", raises: [],
                                 tags: [].}
Checks whether a given path is a root directory   Source Edit
proc `/../`(head, tail: string): string {...}{.noSideEffect, raises: [], tags: [].}
The same as parentDir(head) / tail unless there is no parent directory. Then head / tail is performed instead.   Source Edit
proc searchExtPos(path: string): int {...}{.raises: [], tags: [].}
Returns index of the '.' char in path if it signifies the beginning of extension. Returns -1 otherwise.   Source Edit
proc splitFile(path: string): tuple[dir, name, ext: string] {...}{.noSideEffect, gcsafe,
    extern: "nos$1", raises: [], tags: [].}

Splits a filename into (dir, name, extension). dir does not end in DirSep. extension includes the leading dot.

Example:

var (dir, name, ext) = splitFile("usr/local/nimc.html")
assert dir == "usr/local"
assert name == "nimc"
assert ext == ".html"

If path has no extension, ext is the empty string. If path has no directory component, dir is the empty string. If path has no filename component, name and ext are empty strings.

  Source Edit
proc extractFilename(path: string): string {...}{.noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nos$1",
    raises: [], tags: [].}
Extracts the filename of a given path. This is the same as name & ext from splitFile(path). See also lastPathPart.

Examples:

when defined(posix):
  doAssert extractFilename("foo/bar/") == ""
  doAssert extractFilename("foo/bar") == "bar"
  Source Edit
proc lastPathPart(path: string): string {...}{.noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nos$1",
                                      raises: [], tags: [].}
like extractFilename, but ignores trailing dir separator; aka: baseName in some other languages.

Examples:

when defined(posix):
  doAssert lastPathPart("foo/bar/") == "bar"
  Source Edit
proc changeFileExt(filename, ext: string): string {...}{.noSideEffect, gcsafe,
    extern: "nos$1", raises: [], tags: [].}

Changes the file extension to ext.

If the filename has no extension, ext will be added. If ext == "" then any extension is removed. Ext should be given without the leading '.', because some filesystems may use a different character. (Although I know of none such beast.)

  Source Edit
proc addFileExt(filename, ext: string): string {...}{.noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nos$1",
    raises: [], tags: [].}

Adds the file extension ext to filename, unless filename already has an extension.

Ext should be given without the leading '.', because some filesystems may use a different character. (Although I know of none such beast.)

  Source Edit
proc cmpPaths(pathA, pathB: string): int {...}{.noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nos$1",
                                      raises: [], tags: [].}

Compares two paths.

On a case-sensitive filesystem this is done case-sensitively otherwise case-insensitively. Returns:

0 iff pathA == pathB
< 0 iff pathA < pathB
> 0 iff pathA > pathB

Examples:

when defined(macosx):
  doAssert cmpPaths("foo", "Foo") == 0
elif defined(posix):
  doAssert cmpPaths("foo", "Foo") > 0
  Source Edit
proc isAbsolute(path: string): bool {...}{.gcsafe, noSideEffect, extern: "nos$1", raises: [],
                                  tags: [].}

Checks whether a given path is absolute.

On Windows, network paths are considered absolute too.

Examples:

doAssert(not "".isAbsolute)
doAssert(not ".".isAbsolute)
when defined(posix):
  doAssert "/".isAbsolute
  doAssert(not "a/".isAbsolute)
  Source Edit
proc unixToNativePath(path: string; drive = ""): string {...}{.noSideEffect, gcsafe,
    extern: "nos$1", raises: [], tags: [].}

Converts an UNIX-like path to a native one.

On an UNIX system this does nothing. Else it converts '/', '.', '..' to the appropriate things.

On systems with a concept of "drives", drive is used to determine which drive label to use during absolute path conversion. drive defaults to the drive of the current working directory, and is ignored on systems that do not have a concept of "drives".

  Source Edit
proc `==`(err1, err2: OSErrorCode): bool {...}{.borrow.}
  Source Edit
proc `$`(err: OSErrorCode): string {...}{.borrow.}
  Source Edit
proc osErrorMsg(errorCode: OSErrorCode): string {...}{.raises: [], tags: [].}

Converts an OS error code into a human readable string.

The error code can be retrieved using the osLastError proc.

If conversion fails, or errorCode is 0 then "" will be returned.

On Windows, the -d:useWinAnsi compilation flag can be used to make this procedure use the non-unicode Win API calls to retrieve the message.

  Source Edit
proc raiseOSError(errorCode: OSErrorCode; additionalInfo = "") {...}{.noinline,
    raises: [OSError], tags: [].}

Raises an OSError exception. The errorCode will determine the message, osErrorMsg will be used to get this message.

The error code can be retrieved using the osLastError proc.

If the error code is 0 or an error message could not be retrieved, the message unknown OS error will be used.

  Source Edit
proc osLastError(): OSErrorCode {...}{.sideEffect, raises: [], tags: [].}

Retrieves the last operating system error code.

This procedure is useful in the event when an OS call fails. In that case this procedure will return the error code describing the reason why the OS call failed. The OSErrorMsg procedure can then be used to convert this code into a string.

Warning: The behaviour of this procedure varies between Windows and POSIX systems. On Windows some OS calls can reset the error code to 0 causing this procedure to return 0. It is therefore advised to call this procedure immediately after an OS call fails. On POSIX systems this is not a problem.

  Source Edit
proc getEnv(key: string; default = ""): TaintedString {...}{.tags: [ReadEnvEffect], raises: [].}

Returns the value of the environment variable named key.

If the variable does not exist, "" is returned. To distinguish whether a variable exists or it's value is just "", call existsEnv(key).

  Source Edit
proc existsEnv(key: string): bool {...}{.tags: [ReadEnvEffect], raises: [].}
Checks whether the environment variable named key exists. Returns true if it exists, false otherwise.   Source Edit
proc putEnv(key, val: string) {...}{.tags: [WriteEnvEffect], raises: [OSError].}
Sets the value of the environment variable named key to val. If an error occurs, EInvalidEnvVar is raised.   Source Edit
proc getHomeDir(): string {...}{.gcsafe, extern: "nos$1",
                         tags: [ReadEnvEffect, ReadIOEffect], raises: [].}

Returns the home directory of the current user.

This proc is wrapped by the expandTilde proc for the convenience of processing paths coming from user configuration files.

  Source Edit
proc getConfigDir(): string {...}{.gcsafe, extern: "nos$1",
                           tags: [ReadEnvEffect, ReadIOEffect], raises: [].}

Returns the config directory of the current user for applications.

On non-Windows OSs, this proc conforms to the XDG Base Directory spec. Thus, this proc returns the value of the XDG_CONFIG_HOME environment variable if it is set, and returns the default configuration directory, "~/.config/", otherwise.

An OS-dependent trailing slash is always present at the end of the returned string; ` on Windows and `/ on all other OSs.

  Source Edit
proc getTempDir(): string {...}{.gcsafe, extern: "nos$1",
                         tags: [ReadEnvEffect, ReadIOEffect], raises: [].}

Returns the temporary directory of the current user for applications to save temporary files in.

Please do not use this: On Android, it currently returns getHomeDir(), and on other Unix based systems it can cause security problems too. That said, you can override this implementation by adding -d:tempDir=mytempname to your compiler invokation.

  Source Edit
proc expandTilde(path: string): string {...}{.tags: [ReadEnvEffect, ReadIOEffect],
                                     raises: [].}

Expands ~ or a path starting with ~/ to a full path, replacing ~ with getHomeDir() (otherwise returns path unmodified).

Windows: this is still supported despite Windows platform not having this convention; also, both ~/ and ~\ are handled.

Examples:

doAssert expandTilde("~" / "appname.cfg") == getHomeDir() / "appname.cfg"
  Source Edit
proc quoteShellWindows(s: string): string {...}{.noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nosp$1",
                                        raises: [], tags: [].}
Quote s, so it can be safely passed to Windows API. Based on Python's subprocess.list2cmdline See http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/17w5ykft.aspx   Source Edit
proc quoteShellPosix(s: string): string {...}{.noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nosp$1",
                                      raises: [], tags: [].}
Quote s, so it can be safely passed to POSIX shell. Based on Python's pipes.quote   Source Edit
proc quoteShell(s: string): string {...}{.noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nosp$1", raises: [],
                                 tags: [].}
Quote s, so it can be safely passed to shell.   Source Edit
proc quoteShellCommand(args: openArray[string]): string {...}{.raises: [], tags: [].}
Concatenates and quotes shell arguments args

Examples:

when defined(posix):
  assert quoteShellCommand(["aaa", "", "c d"]) == "aaa \'\' \'c d\'"
when defined(windows):
  assert quoteShellCommand(["aaa", "", "c d"]) == "aaa \"\" \"c d\""
  Source Edit
proc existsFile(filename: string): bool {...}{.gcsafe, extern: "nos$1",
                                      tags: [ReadDirEffect], raises: [].}
Returns true if filename exists and is a regular file or symlink. (directories, device files, named pipes and sockets return false) This proc is not available for NimScript.   Source Edit
proc existsDir(dir: string): bool {...}{.gcsafe, extern: "nos$1", tags: [ReadDirEffect],
                                raises: [].}
Returns true iff the directory dir exists. If dir is a file, false is returned. Follows symlinks.   Source Edit
proc symlinkExists(link: string): bool {...}{.gcsafe, extern: "nos$1",
                                     tags: [ReadDirEffect], raises: [].}
Returns true iff the symlink link exists. Will return true regardless of whether the link points to a directory or file.   Source Edit
proc fileExists(filename: string): bool {...}{.inline, raises: [], tags: [ReadDirEffect].}
Synonym for existsFile   Source Edit
proc dirExists(dir: string): bool {...}{.inline, raises: [], tags: [ReadDirEffect].}
Synonym for existsDir   Source Edit
proc findExe(exe: string; followSymlinks: bool = true;
            extensions: openArray[string] = ExeExts): string {...}{.
    tags: [ReadDirEffect, ReadEnvEffect, ReadIOEffect], raises: [OSError].}
Searches for exe in the current working directory and then in directories listed in the PATH environment variable. Returns "" if the exe cannot be found. exe is added the ExeExts file extensions if it has none. If the system supports symlinks it also resolves them until it meets the actual file. This behavior can be disabled if desired.   Source Edit
proc getLastModificationTime(file: string): times.Time {...}{.gcsafe, extern: "nos$1",
    raises: [OSError], tags: [].}
Returns the file's last modification time.   Source Edit
proc getLastAccessTime(file: string): times.Time {...}{.gcsafe, extern: "nos$1",
    raises: [OSError], tags: [].}
Returns the file's last read or write access time.   Source Edit
proc getCreationTime(file: string): times.Time {...}{.gcsafe, extern: "nos$1",
    raises: [OSError], tags: [].}

Returns the file's creation time.

Note: Under POSIX OS's, the returned time may actually be the time at which the file's attribute's were last modified. See here for details.

  Source Edit
proc fileNewer(a, b: string): bool {...}{.gcsafe, extern: "nos$1", raises: [OSError], tags: [].}
Returns true if the file a is newer than file b, i.e. if a's modification time is later than b's.   Source Edit
proc getCurrentDir(): string {...}{.gcsafe, extern: "nos$1", tags: [], raises: [OSError].}
Returns the current working directory.   Source Edit
proc setCurrentDir(newDir: string) {...}{.inline, tags: [], raises: [OSError].}
Sets the current working directory; OSError is raised if newDir cannot been set.   Source Edit
proc absolutePath(path: string; root = getCurrentDir()): string {...}{.raises: [ValueError],
    tags: [].}
Returns the absolute path of path, rooted at root (which must be absolute) if path is absolute, return it, ignoring root

Examples:

doAssert absolutePath("a") == getCurrentDir() / "a"
  Source Edit
proc normalizePath(path: var string) {...}{.gcsafe, extern: "nos$1", tags: [], raises: [].}

Normalize a path.

Consecutive directory separators are collapsed, including an initial double slash.

On relative paths, double dot (..) sequences are collapsed if possible. On absolute paths they are always collapsed.

Warning: URL-encoded and Unicode attempts at directory traversal are not detected. Triple dot is not handled.

  Source Edit
proc normalizedPath(path: string): string {...}{.gcsafe, extern: "nos$1", tags: [], raises: [].}
Returns a normalized path for the current OS. See #normalizePath   Source Edit
proc sameFile(path1, path2: string): bool {...}{.gcsafe, extern: "nos$1",
                                       tags: [ReadDirEffect], raises: [OSError].}

Returns true if both pathname arguments refer to the same physical file or directory. Raises an exception if any of the files does not exist or information about it can not be obtained.

This proc will return true if given two alternative hard-linked or sym-linked paths to the same file or directory.

  Source Edit
proc sameFileContent(path1, path2: string): bool {...}{.gcsafe, extern: "nos$1",
    tags: [ReadIOEffect], raises: [Exception, IOError].}
Returns true if both pathname arguments refer to files with identical binary content.   Source Edit
proc getFilePermissions(filename: string): set[FilePermission] {...}{.gcsafe,
    extern: "nos$1", tags: [ReadDirEffect], raises: [OSError].}
retrieves file permissions for filename. OSError is raised in case of an error. On Windows, only the readonly flag is checked, every other permission is available in any case.   Source Edit
proc setFilePermissions(filename: string; permissions: set[FilePermission]) {...}{.gcsafe,
    extern: "nos$1", tags: [WriteDirEffect], raises: [OSError].}
sets the file permissions for filename. OSError is raised in case of an error. On Windows, only the readonly flag is changed, depending on fpUserWrite.   Source Edit
proc copyFile(source, dest: string) {...}{.gcsafe, extern: "nos$1",
                                  tags: [ReadIOEffect, WriteIOEffect],
                                  raises: [OSError, Exception, IOError].}

Copies a file from source to dest.

If this fails, OSError is raised. On the Windows platform this proc will copy the source file's attributes into dest. On other platforms you need to use getFilePermissions() and setFilePermissions() to copy them by hand (or use the convenience copyFileWithPermissions() proc), otherwise dest will inherit the default permissions of a newly created file for the user. If dest already exists, the file attributes will be preserved and the content overwritten.

  Source Edit
proc tryRemoveFile(file: string): bool {...}{.gcsafe, extern: "nos$1",
                                     tags: [WriteDirEffect], raises: [].}
Removes the file. If this fails, returns false. This does not fail if the file never existed in the first place. On Windows, ignores the read-only attribute.   Source Edit
proc removeFile(file: string) {...}{.gcsafe, extern: "nos$1", tags: [WriteDirEffect],
                             raises: [OSError].}
Removes the file. If this fails, OSError is raised. This does not fail if the file never existed in the first place. On Windows, ignores the read-only attribute.   Source Edit
proc moveFile(source, dest: string) {...}{.gcsafe, extern: "nos$1",
                                  tags: [ReadIOEffect, WriteIOEffect],
                                  raises: [OSError, Exception, IOError, ].}
Moves a file from source to dest. If this fails, OSError is raised. Can be used to rename files   Source Edit
proc exitStatusLikeShell(status: cint): cint {...}{.raises: [], tags: [].}
converts exit code from c_system into a shell exit code   Source Edit
proc execShellCmd(command: string): int {...}{.gcsafe, extern: "nos$1",
                                      tags: [ExecIOEffect], raises: [].}

Executes a shell command.

Command has the form 'program args' where args are the command line arguments given to program. The proc returns the error code of the shell when it has finished. The proc does not return until the process has finished. To execute a program without having a shell involved, use osproc.execProcess.

  Source Edit
proc expandFilename(filename: string): string {...}{.gcsafe, extern: "nos$1",
    tags: [ReadDirEffect], raises: [OSError].}
Returns the full (absolute) path of an existing file filename, raises OSError in case of an error. Follows symlinks.   Source Edit
proc getCurrentCompilerExe(): string {...}{.compileTime, raises: [], tags: [].}
getAppFilename at CT; can be used to retrive the currently executing Nim compiler from a Nim or nimscript program, or the nimble binary inside a nimble program (likewise with other binaries built from compiler API).   Source Edit
proc removeDir(dir: string) {...}{.gcsafe, extern: "nos$1",
                           tags: [WriteDirEffect, ReadDirEffect], gcsafe, locks: 0,
                           raises: [OSError].}

Removes the directory dir including all subdirectories and files in dir (recursively).

If this fails, OSError is raised. This does not fail if the directory never existed in the first place.

  Source Edit
proc existsOrCreateDir(dir: string): bool {...}{.gcsafe, extern: "nos$1",
                                        tags: [WriteDirEffect, ReadDirEffect],
                                        raises: [OSError, IOError].}

Check if a directory dir exists, and create it otherwise.

Does not create parent directories (fails if parent does not exist). Returns true if the directory already exists, and false otherwise.

  Source Edit
proc createDir(dir: string) {...}{.gcsafe, extern: "nos$1",
                           tags: [WriteDirEffect, ReadDirEffect],
                           raises: [OSError, IOError].}

Creates the directory dir.

The directory may contain several subdirectories that do not exist yet. The full path is created. If this fails, OSError is raised. It does not fail if the directory already exists because for most usages this does not indicate an error.

  Source Edit
proc copyDir(source, dest: string) {...}{.gcsafe, extern: "nos$1",
                                 tags: [WriteIOEffect, ReadIOEffect], gcsafe,
                                 locks: 0, raises: [OSError, IOError, Exception].}

Copies a directory from source to dest.

If this fails, OSError is raised. On the Windows platform this proc will copy the attributes from source into dest. On other platforms created files and directories will inherit the default permissions of a newly created file/directory for the user. To preserve attributes recursively on these platforms use copyDirWithPermissions().

  Source Edit
proc createSymlink(src, dest: string) {...}{.raises: [OSError], tags: [].}

Create a symbolic link at dest which points to the item specified by src. On most operating systems, will fail if a link already exists.

Warning: Some OS's (such as Microsoft Windows) restrict the creation of symlinks to root users (administrators).

  Source Edit
proc createHardlink(src, dest: string) {...}{.raises: [OSError], tags: [].}

Create a hard link at dest which points to the item specified by src.

Warning: Some OS's restrict the creation of hard links to root users (administrators).

  Source Edit
proc parseCmdLine(c: string): seq[string] {...}{.noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nos$1",
                                        raises: [], tags: [].}

Splits a command line into several components; This proc is only occasionally useful, better use the parseopt module.

On Windows, it uses the following parsing rules (see http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/17w5ykft.aspx ):

  • Arguments are delimited by white space, which is either a space or a tab.
  • The caret character (^) is not recognized as an escape character or delimiter. The character is handled completely by the command-line parser in the operating system before being passed to the argv array in the program.
  • A string surrounded by double quotation marks ("string") is interpreted as a single argument, regardless of white space contained within. A quoted string can be embedded in an argument.
  • A double quotation mark preceded by a backslash (") is interpreted as a literal double quotation mark character (").
  • Backslashes are interpreted literally, unless they immediately precede a double quotation mark.
  • If an even number of backslashes is followed by a double quotation mark, one backslash is placed in the argv array for every pair of backslashes, and the double quotation mark is interpreted as a string delimiter.
  • If an odd number of backslashes is followed by a double quotation mark, one backslash is placed in the argv array for every pair of backslashes, and the double quotation mark is "escaped" by the remaining backslash, causing a literal double quotation mark (") to be placed in argv.

On Posix systems, it uses the following parsing rules: Components are separated by whitespace unless the whitespace occurs within " or ' quotes.

  Source Edit
proc copyFileWithPermissions(source, dest: string; ignorePermissionErrors = true) {...}{.
    raises: [OSError, Exception, IOError, ],
    tags: [ReadIOEffect, WriteIOEffect, WriteDirEffect, ReadDirEffect].}

Copies a file from source to dest preserving file permissions.

This is a wrapper proc around copyFile(), getFilePermissions() and setFilePermissions() on non Windows platform. On Windows this proc is just a wrapper for copyFile() since that proc already copies attributes.

On non Windows systems permissions are copied after the file itself has been copied, which won't happen atomically and could lead to a race condition. If ignorePermissionErrors is true, errors while reading/setting file attributes will be ignored, otherwise will raise OSError.

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proc copyDirWithPermissions(source, dest: string; ignorePermissionErrors = true) {...}{.
    gcsafe, extern: "nos$1", tags: [WriteIOEffect, ReadIOEffect], gcsafe, locks: 0,
    raises: [OSError, IOError, ].}

Copies a directory from source to dest preserving file permissions.

If this fails, OSError is raised. This is a wrapper proc around copyDir() and copyFileWithPermissions() on non Windows platforms. On Windows this proc is just a wrapper for copyDir() since that proc already copies attributes.

On non Windows systems permissions are copied after the file or directory itself has been copied, which won't happen atomically and could lead to a race condition. If ignorePermissionErrors is true, errors while reading/setting file attributes will be ignored, otherwise will raise OSError.

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proc inclFilePermissions(filename: string; permissions: set[FilePermission]) {...}{.
    gcsafe, extern: "nos$1", tags: [ReadDirEffect, WriteDirEffect], raises: [OSError].}
a convenience procedure for:
setFilePermissions(filename, getFilePermissions(filename)+permissions)
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proc exclFilePermissions(filename: string; permissions: set[FilePermission]) {...}{.
    gcsafe, extern: "nos$1", tags: [ReadDirEffect, WriteDirEffect], raises: [OSError].}
a convenience procedure for:
setFilePermissions(filename, getFilePermissions(filename)-permissions)
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proc moveDir(source, dest: string) {...}{.tags: [ReadIOEffect, WriteIOEffect],
                                 raises: [OSError, IOError, Exception].}
Moves a directory from source to dest. If this fails, OSError is raised.   Source Edit
proc expandSymlink(symlinkPath: string): string {...}{.raises: [OSError], tags: [].}

Returns a string representing the path to which the symbolic link points.

On Windows this is a noop, symlinkPath is simply returned.

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proc paramCount(): int {...}{.tags: [ReadIOEffect], raises: [].}

Returns the number of command line arguments given to the application.

Unlike argc in C, if your binary was called without parameters this will return zero. You can query each individual paramater with paramStr() or retrieve all of them in one go with commandLineParams().

Availability: When generating a dynamic library (see --app:lib) on Posix this proc is not defined. Test for availability using declared(). Example:

when declared(paramCount):
  # Use paramCount() here
else:
  # Do something else!
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proc paramStr(i: int): TaintedString {...}{.tags: [ReadIOEffect], raises: [].}

Returns the i-th command line argument given to the application.

i should be in the range 1..paramCount(), the IndexError exception will be raised for invalid values. Instead of iterating over paramCount() with this proc you can call the convenience commandLineParams().

Similarly to argv in C, it is possible to call paramStr(0) but this will return OS specific contents (usually the name of the invoked executable). You should avoid this and call getAppFilename() instead.

Availability: When generating a dynamic library (see --app:lib) on Posix this proc is not defined. Test for availability using declared(). Example:

when declared(paramStr):
  # Use paramStr() here
else:
  # Do something else!
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proc commandLineParams(): seq[TaintedString] {...}{.raises: [], tags: [ReadIOEffect].}

Convenience proc which returns the command line parameters.

This returns only the parameters. If you want to get the application executable filename, call getAppFilename().

Availability: On Posix there is no portable way to get the command line from a DLL and thus the proc isn't defined in this environment. You can test for its availability with declared(). Example:

when declared(commandLineParams):
  # Use commandLineParams() here
else:
  # Do something else!
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proc getAppFilename(): string {...}{.gcsafe, extern: "nos$1", tags: [ReadIOEffect],
                             raises: [].}

Returns the filename of the application's executable. See also getCurrentCompilerExe.

This procedure will resolve symlinks.

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proc getAppDir(): string {...}{.gcsafe, extern: "nos$1", tags: [ReadIOEffect], raises: [].}
Returns the directory of the application's executable.   Source Edit
proc sleep(milsecs: int) {...}{.gcsafe, extern: "nos$1", tags: [TimeEffect], raises: [].}
sleeps milsecs milliseconds.   Source Edit
proc getFileSize(file: string): BiggestInt {...}{.gcsafe, extern: "nos$1",
    tags: [ReadIOEffect], raises: [IOError, OSError].}
returns the file size of file (in bytes). An OSError exception is raised in case of an error.   Source Edit
proc getFileInfo(handle: FileHandle): FileInfo {...}{.raises: [OSError], tags: [].}

Retrieves file information for the file object represented by the given handle.

If the information cannot be retrieved, such as when the file handle is invalid, an error will be thrown.

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proc getFileInfo(file: File): FileInfo {...}{.raises: [IOError, OSError], tags: [].}
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proc getFileInfo(path: string; followSymlink = true): FileInfo {...}{.raises: [OSError],
    tags: [].}

Retrieves file information for the file object pointed to by path.

Due to intrinsic differences between operating systems, the information contained by the returned FileInfo structure will be slightly different across platforms, and in some cases, incomplete or inaccurate.

When followSymlink is true, symlinks are followed and the information retrieved is information related to the symlink's target. Otherwise, information on the symlink itself is retrieved.

If the information cannot be retrieved, such as when the path doesn't exist, or when permission restrictions prevent the program from retrieving file information, an error will be thrown.

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proc isHidden(path: string): bool {...}{.raises: [], tags: [].}

Determines whether path is hidden or not, using this reference https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hidden_file_and_hidden_directory

On Windows: returns true if it exists and its "hidden" attribute is set.

On posix: returns true if lastPathPart(path) starts with . and is not . or ... Note: paths are not normalized to determine isHidden.

Examples:

when defined(posix):
  doAssert ".foo".isHidden
  doAssert:
    not ".foo/bar".isHidden
  doAssert:
    not ".".isHidden
  doAssert:
    not "..".isHidden
  doAssert:
    not "".isHidden
  doAssert ".foo/".isHidden
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proc getCurrentProcessId(): int {...}{.raises: [], tags: [].}
return current process ID. See also osproc.processID(p: Process).   Source Edit
proc setLastModificationTime(file: string; t: times.Time) {...}{.raises: [OSError], tags: [].}
Sets the file's last modification time. OSError is raised in case of an error.   Source Edit

Iterators

iterator parentDirs(path: string; fromRoot = false; inclusive = true): string {...}{.
    raises: [], tags: [].}

Walks over all parent directories of a given path

If fromRoot is set, the traversal will start from the file system root diretory. If inclusive is set, the original argument will be included in the traversal.

Relative paths won't be expanded by this proc. Instead, it will traverse only the directories appearing in the relative path.

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iterator envPairs(): tuple[key, value: TaintedString] {...}{.tags: [ReadEnvEffect],
    raises: [].}
Iterate over all environments variables. In the first component of the tuple is the name of the current variable stored, in the second its value.   Source Edit
iterator walkPattern(pattern: string): string {...}{.tags: [ReadDirEffect], raises: [].}

Iterate over all the files and directories that match the pattern. On POSIX this uses the glob call.

pattern is OS dependent, but at least the "*.ext" notation is supported.

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iterator walkFiles(pattern: string): string {...}{.tags: [ReadDirEffect], raises: [].}

Iterate over all the files that match the pattern. On POSIX this uses the glob call.

pattern is OS dependent, but at least the "*.ext" notation is supported.

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iterator walkDirs(pattern: string): string {...}{.tags: [ReadDirEffect], raises: [].}

Iterate over all the directories that match the pattern. On POSIX this uses the glob call.

pattern is OS dependent, but at least the "*.ext" notation is supported.

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iterator walkDir(dir: string; relative = false): tuple[kind: PathComponent, path: string] {...}{.
    tags: [ReadDirEffect], raises: [].}

walks over the directory dir and yields for each directory or file in dir. The component type and full path for each item is returned. Walking is not recursive. If relative is true the resulting path is shortened to be relative to dir. Example: This directory structure:

dirA / dirB / fileB1.txt
     / dirC
     / fileA1.txt
     / fileA2.txt

and this code:

for kind, path in walkDir("dirA"):
  echo(path)

produces this output (but not necessarily in this order!):

dirA/dirB
dirA/dirC
dirA/fileA1.txt
dirA/fileA2.txt

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iterator walkDirRec(dir: string; yieldFilter = {pcFile}; followFilter = {pcDir};
                   relative = false): string {...}{.tags: [ReadDirEffect], raises: [].}

Recursively walks over the directory dir and yields for each file or directory in dir. If relative is true the resulting path is shortened to be relative to dir, otherwise the full path is returned.

Warning: Modifying the directory structure while the iterator is traversing may result in undefined behavior!

Walking is recursive. filters controls the behaviour of the iterator:

yieldFiltermeaning
pcFileyield real files
pcLinkToFileyield symbolic links to files
pcDiryield real directories
pcLinkToDiryield symbolic links to directories
followFiltermeaning
pcDirfollow real directories
pcLinkToDirfollow symbolic links to directories
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