std/options

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This module implements types which encapsulate an optional value.

A value of type Option[T] either contains a value x (represented as some(x)) or is empty (none(T)).

This can be useful when you have a value that can be present or not. The absence of a value is often represented by nil, but that is not always available, nor is it always a good solution.

Basic usage

Let's start with an example: a procedure that finds the index of a character in a string.

Example:

import std/options
proc find(haystack: string, needle: char): Option[int] =
  for i, c in haystack:
    if c == needle:
      return some(i)
  return none(int)  # This line is actually optional,
                    # because the default is empty

let found = "abc".find('c')
assert found.isSome and found.get() == 2
The get operation demonstrated above returns the underlying value, or raises UnpackDefect if there is no value. Note that UnpackDefect inherits from system.Defect and should therefore never be caught. Instead, rely on checking if the option contains a value with the isSome and isNone procs.

Pattern matching

Note: This requires the fusion package.

fusion/matching supports pattern matching on Options, with the Some(<pattern>) and None() patterns.

{.experimental: "caseStmtMacros".}

import fusion/matching

case some(42)
of Some(@a):
  assert a == 42
of None():
  assert false

assertMatch(some(some(none(int))), Some(Some(None())))

Types

Option[T] = object
  when T is SomePointer:
    val
  else:
      val
      has

  
An optional type that may or may not contain a value of type T. When T is a a pointer type (ptr, pointer, ref or proc), none(T) is represented as nil.   Source   Edit
UnpackDefect = object of Defect
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UnpackError {.deprecated: "See corresponding Defect".} = UnpackDefect
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Procs

proc option[T](val: T): Option[T] {.inline.}

Can be used to convert a pointer type (ptr, pointer, ref or proc) to an option type. It converts nil to none(T). When T is no pointer type, this is equivalent to some(val).

See also:

Example:

type
  Foo = ref object
    a: int
    b: string

assert option[Foo](nil).isNone
assert option(42).isSome
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proc some[T](val: T): Option[T] {.inline.}

Returns an Option that has the value val.

See also:

Example:

let a = some("abc")

assert a.isSome
assert a.get == "abc"
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proc none(T: typedesc): Option[T] {.inline.}

Returns an Option for this type that has no value.

See also:

Example:

assert none(int).isNone
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proc none[T](): Option[T] {.inline.}
Alias for none(T).   Source   Edit
proc isSome[T](self: Option[T]): bool {.inline.}

Checks if an Option contains a value.

See also:

Example:

assert some(42).isSome
assert not none(string).isSome
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proc isNone[T](self: Option[T]): bool {.inline.}

Checks if an Option is empty.

See also:

Example:

assert not some(42).isNone
assert none(string).isNone
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proc get[T](self: Option[T]): lent T {.inline.}

Returns the content of an Option. If it has no value, an UnpackDefect exception is raised.

See also:

Example:

assert some(42).get == 42
doAssertRaises(UnpackDefect):
  echo none(string).get
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proc get[T](self: Option[T]; otherwise: T): T {.inline.}
Returns the content of the Option or otherwise if the Option has no value.

Example:

assert some(42).get(9999) == 42
assert none(int).get(9999) == 9999
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proc get[T](self: var Option[T]): var T {.inline.}
Returns the content of the var Option mutably. If it has no value, an UnpackDefect exception is raised.

Example:

var
  a = some(42)
  b = none(string)
inc(a.get)
assert a.get == 43
doAssertRaises(UnpackDefect):
  echo b.get
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proc map[T](self: Option[T]; callback: proc (input: T)) {.inline.}

Applies a callback function to the value of the Option, if it has one.

See also:

  • map proc for a version with a callback which returns a value

Example:

var d = 0
proc saveDouble(x: int) =
  d = 2 * x

none(int).map(saveDouble)
assert d == 0
some(42).map(saveDouble)
assert d == 84
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proc map[T, R](self: Option[T]; callback: proc (input: T): R): Option[R] {.
    inline.}

Applies a callback function to the value of the Option and returns an Option containing the new value.

If the Option has no value, none(R) will be returned.

See also:

Example:

proc isEven(x: int): bool =
  x mod 2 == 0

assert some(42).map(isEven) == some(true)
assert none(int).map(isEven) == none(bool)
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proc flatten[T](self: Option[Option[T]]): Option[T] {.inline.}

Remove one level of structure in a nested Option.

See also:

Example:

assert flatten(some(some(42))) == some(42)
assert flatten(none(Option[int])) == none(int)
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proc flatMap[T, R](self: Option[T]; callback: proc (input: T): Option[R]): Option[
    R] {.inline.}

Applies a callback function to the value of the Option and returns the new value.

If the Option has no value, none(R) will be returned.

This is similar to map, with the difference that the callback returns an Option, not a raw value. This allows multiple procs with a signature of A -> Option[B] to be chained together.

See also:

Example:

proc doublePositives(x: int): Option[int] =
  if x > 0:
    some(2 * x)
  else:
    none(int)

assert some(42).flatMap(doublePositives) == some(84)
assert none(int).flatMap(doublePositives) == none(int)
assert some(-11).flatMap(doublePositives) == none(int)
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proc filter[T](self: Option[T]; callback: proc (input: T): bool): Option[T] {.
    inline.}

Applies a callback to the value of the Option.

If the callback returns true, the option is returned as some. If it returns false, it is returned as none.

See also:

Example:

proc isEven(x: int): bool =
  x mod 2 == 0

assert some(42).filter(isEven) == some(42)
assert none(int).filter(isEven) == none(int)
assert some(-11).filter(isEven) == none(int)
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proc `==`[T](a, b: Option[T]): bool {.inline.}
Returns true if both Options are none, or if they are both some and have equal values.

Example:

let
  a = some(42)
  b = none(int)
  c = some(42)
  d = none(int)

assert a == c
assert b == d
assert not (a == b)
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proc `$`[T](self: Option[T]): string
Get the string representation of the Option.

Example:

assert $some(42) == "some(42)"
assert $none(int) == "none(int)"
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proc unsafeGet[T](self: Option[T]): lent T {.inline.}

Returns the value of a some. The behavior is undefined for none.

Note: Use this only when you are absolutely sure the value is present (e.g. after checking with isSome). Generally, using the get proc is preferred.

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